mri rip metal out of body

Did THOSE go ripping out? You may have short-term hearing loss after an MRI. IIRC, most injuries and deaths from MRIs aren’t from something internal to the patient, they are from someone bringing something external into the room that then flies into the bore of the MRI, where the patient is, at very high speed. Metallic things can be pulled towards the magnet with such great force that the metal can crack open or rip through weak, soft surfaces. Here is our compilation of 15 Totally Disturbing Body Horror Movies. titanium alloys and stainless steel. I’ve had plenty of patients tell me that they could ‘feel’ the labeled-safe clip while the scanner was doing its buzzing, and many of them I actually believe. All body protocols for pediatric patients are under Pediatric Protocols. Visit https://www.mripetctsource.com/blog for more amazing resources!Test was performed with a lanyard and paperclip. I guess they didn’t want to risk anything. Thermal Burns. When Sylvia’s doctor said she needed an MRI, she was turned down twice because of her metal implants before she found CDI, … When the LHC quenched a few days after startup (link), massive magnets had to be realigned along with the electrical repairs. Why Is Microsoft Planning To Move Data Centers Under Water. Imagine having an earring ripped out of your ear in a split-second! I wouldn’t call it traumatic, but it could be kind of scary if you don’t understand what’s happening. So, standards are relaxing. In the meantime, everybody needs to get out of the room as there can be enough gas generated to dangerously lower the oxygen level. It is typically a large donut-shaped machine that’s open on either end. I can’t imagine them just forgetting to implement that step when they are supposedly doing it every single time they use the machine - so if it happened once, it means they probably weren’t doing their jobs on a regular basis. Since MRI uses a very strong magnet, metal on or inside the body may be affected, so be sure to tell your scheduler and technologist about any device, metal, or shrapnel in your body and they will determine if it is safe for you to proceed with the MRI exam. Are Identical Twins Allergic To The Same Things? That kind of movement and heating has been reported for some cardiac pacemakers and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators. Using MRI, doctors can sometimes tell if a tumor is or isn’t cancer. No. That could have gone horribly wrong… Why Do Metallic Objects Pose Such a Serious Threat? Probably not…but cause intense pain and damage to the body? Most of the human body is made up of water molecules, which consist of hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Once it’s fully energized, the magnet can keep running indefinitely without needing to add any more electricity to the system as long as it’s kept cold. One of the most incredible medical techniques used to diagnose diseases is an MRI scan. Actually being ripped out of the body? If you have metal in or on your body during the MRI, the metal may heat to a dangerous level and cause burns. However, like I said, the odds of it happening to a patient are slim…for one, they would not only have to have one of the few implants that are ferrous, but they’d also have to somehow avoid having it be noticed by the doctors/MRI techs. Some metal objects are, however, perfectly safe for MRI. How Do They Make Gold And Silver Safe To Eat? When you enter the scan room with an active MRI machine wearing, say, a pair of earrings, then the earrings will instantly become magnetized and will try to align/orient itself with respect to the wildly powerful MRI magnet. You may have short-term hearing loss after an MRI. I asked, and they said I could still have MRIs, I just needed to tell people about this, and it would somewhat distort and scramble the images of the immediately surrounding area. (The Varian tech was bringing a brand-new one online and it quenched.). Loose metal objects can injure you during an MRI when they're pulled toward the very powerful MRI magnet. I’m sure shotgun pellets probably could be pulled through brain tissue, which is notoriously soft, and the pellets are unanchored. Not only will it yank metal through your body, it will throw an oxygen canister at you from across the room. They may also be sent electronically, printed or copied to a CD, or uploaded to a digital cloud server. Also, most people with metal in their bodies don't have metal that's easily magnetized. Magnetic resonance imaging or MRI scanning uses magnetism, radio waves, and a computer to produce images of body structures. Although research is ongoing that how most of the metallic surgical instruments may be replaced, scientists and designers have not been that successful insofar. I’m not sure if they’re magnetic or not. Just what it sounds like. Even if a crown is not pulled out, it can still be damaged. When it comes to a metallic object being pulled towards a powerful magnet, human skin is extremely soft and thus very easy to wound. R. rubix Golden Member. Which I imagine would be kind of a bummer. A Simple and Brief Explanation, What is the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle: Explained in Simple Words. So what’s the truth? Would that really happen? I think shotgun pellets are usually made out of lead. The MRI machine creates a strong magnetic field inside your body. metal in your body. I’m fairly sure there are no magnets anywhere that could do that. Clearly, little nonferrous things aren’t going to move perceptibly. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. (Photo credit: Liz West, Flickr) Katy Peters needed to get an MRI for a radical hysterectomy surgery she had coming up. Small animal imagers exist in sizes up to 17.2T and chemistry NMR spectrometers can be found with field strengths up to 23.5T. This vibration can move, bend, or break dental restorations. What’s The Science Behind Hair Straighteners/Curlers? Yeah, I’ve only done an MRI twice but it seemed like emptying your pockets is a pretty standard procedure. If you have metal or electronic devices in your body such as artificial joints or heart valves, a pacemaker or rods, plates or screws holding bones in place, be sure to tell the technician. Don’t forget, that as the coolant evaporates, the coil with a whole pile of stored magnetic and electrical energy is no longer superconductive - all that magnetic and electrical energy has to go somewhere as well, usually with a jolt and maybe a bang. Utilizing metallic substances in such environments is highly risky. Magnetic Resonance Imaging or "MRI" uses a super-powerful magnet. But the scan may not be … Her doctor told her that should would need to remove her nipple jewelry beforehand for safety (She had a barbell in each nipple). What Is The Fibonacci Sequence? The most common culprit is an oxygen tank…how the fuck this happens I have no idea. Why Are There Stones Along Railway Tracks? The first MRI scanner used to image the human body was built in New York in 1977. And you can put the metal ones back in afterwards (you don't stay magnetized or anything. Coefficient Of Restitution: Definition, Explanation And Formula, Sheepshead Fish: Facts About The Fish With Human Teeth. For that reason, strict measures are put in place to ensure that there are no metallic objects in the vicinity of the machine when it’s switched on. How does an MRI scan work? Depending on the setup it can be really loud and you may not be able to see anything because of all the condensing water vapor from the cold gas coming out of the instrument. He won't really be able to pull the iron out of your body, but consider the following. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. Metallic objects, in the presence of a strong magnetic field, become magnetized themselves. Metallic foreign body in the eye Metal shrapnel or bullet . If you recently had surgery to place a coil, stent, or filter in your body, it may move out of place during the MRI. MRI technologist Travis Gould says when he checks out metal workers, he rarely finds metal shavings. People have been killed in the MRI by metal projectiles like oxygen tanks, wheelchair parts and other magnetic objects that came into range. (The liquid helium is kept cold by a much larger dewer of liquid nitrogen at 77 K.) At that temperature, the metal becomes superconductive and the magnet is created by sending electricity through the loop. And it’s not just bothersome; it may ruin the instrument. This means all jewelry has to come … metal of any kind; The MRI is done with a magnet, therefore items containing metal can pose a hazard to the machine and your body. An MRI with contrast dye is the best way to see brain and spinal cord tumors. So I have had metal in my body since 2007. Subscribe to our mailing list and get interesting stuff and updates to your email inbox. When you get to within 3 feet (1 meter) of the magnet, it's likely the wrench will be pulled from your grasp. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - UC San Diego Health. Hell, she’d probably be fucked just entering the room it’s in, without it even being on. The magnetic field could dislodge the object, while radio waves could make it heat up. A steel nail precariously embedded right between various delicate structures in the brain sounds like something to worry about. http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-7139941690708614565. Doing the scan can take a long time, and you must stay still. Before having an MRI scan, you should tell medical staff if: The strong magnets used during the scan can … Magnets only attract certain types of metals, so only those are a concern with MRI. When a metal fragment may be present in your body, either x-ray or CT may need to be obtained before you can be allowed to enter the MRI unit safely. Steel, being largely composed of iron, is magnetic and steel pellets within the body would be problematic within an MRI. Here’s a video about MRI safety. Metallic objects placed in the body can pose problems for MRI scans, which use a strong magnetic field and pulses of radio waves to see inside the body. Circle Of Willis: Anatomy, Diagram And Functions. Any NMR these days uses a supercooled superconducting electromagnet. But yes, if they are, she would be fucked in an MRI. After talking with … Features of the procedure require the use of inert metals which do not cause rejection by the body tissues. This, and the heating of loops of catheters or such, are big issues with … The patient (in a supine position) is moved into the machine through one of the ends. When it comes to a metallic object being pulled towards a powerful magnet, human skin is extremely soft and thus very easy to wound. I went for an MRI a few years ago and noticed a funny vibrating feeling on my hand, and realized I still had my wedding band on. Try sticking a kids 100% test to the stainless steel refrigerator using a magnet. Permission to contact the selected patients by tele-phone and retrospectively review their radiological fi les was obtained from our institutional ethics committee. From this cite (Ctrl-F for “lead shot”), shotgun pellets are 99.8% lead, and 0.2% antimony; neither would be attracted to a magnet. MRI is very good at finding and pinpointing some cancers. After talking with … Due to the sheer power that the MRI magnet wields, it becomes extremely crucial to take the utmost caution in the MRI scan room. The technician may offer you earplugs. I’ve heard joking remarks on TV about MRIs ripping people open if used on someone with metal in their body. I’m told it will be safe…, Wow; even though you ended up alright, that’s actually rather horrifying. Some metals absorb the energy created by the magnetic field. Body imaging protocols currently applied in our MRI section. Metal objects can become dangerous projectiles if they are taken into the scan room. It’s long, but just go to about the one minute mark to see a metal wrench fly through the air and obliterate bricks that are between it and an MRI magnet. More of an issue than being ‘ripped out of the body’ is the torquing/twisting of tiny bits of metal (ferrous or not). Why Are Photographs From The Past Sepia Toned? Compared to Eli Roth's overly gruesome Hostel series, Cabin Fever is a surprisingly well-rounded movie. MRI examination and metal size, the interval between the injury and undergoing an MRI, as well as MR sequences and duration and type of MRI examination. That is why I think MRI technology is a very vital and evolving field of work. “99 percent of the time there’s nothing in there, but it only takes one time to be wrong for someone to be seriously injured,” he says. An MRI can cause medical devices to work wrong, or stop working. The magnet in an MRI is crazy powerful. Doesn’t anybody here have metal fillings in their teeth? Most metal tooth fillings or other permanent dental implants won’t cause a problem. However, the vast, vast, majority of medical implants are made from non-ferrous metals (mostly titanium and non-ferrous stainless steel alloys.). You can feel a one tesla field at the surface of a good neodymium iron boron magnet. While one reader is concerned about having an MRI scan because of his metal implant, Helen Pearce from East Lothian suffers from a benign essential tremor, and needs a good treatment. In this case there was extreme concern on the initial MRI imaging (it was immediately terminated on seeing this artefact), but fortunately CT showed the metal to be outside the globe and the patient suffered no ill-effects. If you dropped the tank on the patient from a height of 20 feet, that could also be a real problem, but we don’t say that gravity makes implanted metal dangerous, do we? These impressively clear images can subsequently be used to determine whether there is an injury or the presence of an unwanted growth. However, since the advent of X-ray, ECG, and MRI scans, it has become far easier for doctors to diagnose a patient’s problem and subsequently prescribe the appropriate treatment. MRI creates pictures of soft tissue parts of the body that are sometimes hard to see using other imaging tests. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) is a process through which highly detailed images of the body’s various organs and tissues are obtained, all without the use of X-rays (or ionizing radiation). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is very safe and most people are able to have the procedure. Her doctor told her that should would need to remove her nipple jewelry beforehand for safety (She had a barbell in each nipple). You may be asked to wear a gown. They need to be removed before getting one. Why Are There Stones Alongside Railway Tracks? For some MRI exams, depending on the body part being imaged, we may not need to have your head inside the scanner at all. I had 3 hip surgeries over a 3-year time period. There are aluminum O2 cylinders that are clearly marked that they are the ONLY kind to be used near an MRI, yet someone the steel ones work their way in there…. i.e. All I know is one of the guys I work with has a metal rod in his spine and they won't let him have an MRI because they said it would rip it out of him if he did. Some dental restorations, like dental crowns, may include traces of these metals. ; Patients with heart pacemakers, metal implants, or metal chips or clips in or around the eyes cannot be scanned with MRI because of the effect of the magnet. ), As for shotgun pellets…I have no idea if those are ferrous or not. Why would you prefer to never see another one? I was watching 20/20 about a woman who has shotgun pellets in her brain and I thought - man, an MRI would scramble her brains! It was my keys, which we had all forgotten about, smacking into the side of the tunnel. MRI scanning is painless and does not involve x-ray radiation. A number of factors help determine if an MRI is safe for you if you have pieces of metal in your body. Most of the human body is made up of water molecules, which consist of hydrogen and oxygen atoms. For example, paperclips, pens, keys, scissors, hemostats, stethoscopes and any other small objects can be pulled out of pockets and off the body without warning, at which point they fly toward the opening of … Magnetic Resonance Imaging or “MRI” uses a super-powerful magnet. Unless you are told otherwise, take your regular medications as usual. If you have detachable metal braces or a retainer, you should take them out before you get an MRI. In the right circumstances these can pull an iron splinter out of the eye, I hear, but in general the fact that you can grab something iron with your fingers and pull it off the face of the magnet means that it’s not going to drag such things through your flesh unless you’re talking very soft flesh. Metal objects can become dangerous projectiles if they are taken into the scan room. The scan is painless. Commercially available MR scanners for routine clinical use exist from 0.2T to 3.0T, while research facilities currently perform human imaging in fields up to 11.7T. That would not be a good day at the doctor’s office… In the past, when access to advanced technological equipment was not so readily available to people, it was often a challenging task for a physician to pin-point the source of an ailment or disease in their patients. I wondered about your posting, too. For an NMR, the liquid nitrogen fill schedule is about once a week and the liquid nitrogen fill is about once a month. It has been report by MRI maintenance Engineers that in the presence of metal objects, the strength of MRI magnets become so strong that it can trap, injure, or even kill an individual having the scan test. This dramatically lowers the expectation or experience of claustrophobia. No guarantee that you’ll be able to reenergize the magnet. Are pregnant ; Have pieces of metal in your body. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is very safe and most people are able to have the procedure. I'm gonna go with ripped out of you for $100 Alex. More of an issue than being ‘ripped out of the body’ is the torquing/twisting of tiny bits of metal (ferrous or not). An MRI scan is conducted with the help of an MRI machine. As the fields are changed/pulsed in the acquisition of images (the bangings heard during a scan, per se), things metallic can be twisted back and forth to align with the ‘pulsing’ mag field (which is stationary when not scanning). He spends a lot of time watching movies, and an awful lot more time discussing them. “The vast majority of the time, there’s no problem and we’ll go right ahead and do the MRI scan,” Dr. Weinreb says. Gas cylinders should always be chained down. Having a lot of metal in your mouth can distort images if you need an MRI of your head or neck, making the scan less useful for diagnosis and treatment. You’ve probably heard the acronym before, and perhaps have even undergone the scan yourself, but do you know what it actually does? In addition, if the magnetic field comes into contact with metals, it will interfere with the scanning and the subsequent generation of images. Most recently I got a titanium “plate”, a two inch boxy figure “8” with 8 screws of titanium, in my neck. This energy can heat the metal enough … The most common magnets used today are somewhere in the order 0.5 Tesla to 3.0 Tesla (Tesla is the unit of measure for magnetic field density; 1 Tesla=10,000 Gauss). Protons are like tiny magnets and are very sensitive to magnetic fields. An MRI can cause medical devices to work wrong, or stop working. Protons are like tiny magnets and are very sensitive to magnetic fields. Lead, all by itself, is not magnetic. If you recently had surgery to place a coil, stent, or filter in your body, it may move out of place during the MRI. But in some instances an MRI scan may not be recommended. Imagine standing 15 feet (4.6 meters) away from the magnet with a large pipe wrench in your hand. Unless you are told otherwise, take your regular medications as usual. I thought I was ruining things and pushed the little button, and asked, and they said it didn’t matter and they didn’t ask people to remove them anymore, which they had been doing for my previous MRIs. Crowns made of porcelain, composite resin, or gold pose no risks from MRI. Detailed MR images allow doctors to examine the body and detect disease. I had surgery (gallbladder) a month or so after this most recent MRI and the surgeon assured me that the metallic clips used were titanium and would not pose problems with future MRIs. How Big Is It and Does It Bite? Case Discussion. At the centre of each hydrogen atom is an even smaller particle called a proton. How Does Silver Nitrate (AgNO3) Work On Human Wounds? Personally, what would scare me even more would be the (extremely unlikely) chance of a quench while in the tube. throw an oxygen canister at you from across the room. Powered by Discourse, best viewed with JavaScript enabled. Hi there,my doctor wanted me to have a mri scan to find out what was causing my back problems.I only knew i had metal clips inside me when i looked at my x-ray,me and my mum were gob-smacked as i never knew they were there.Alas i never got to have the scan as the back surgeon said due to the clips it can't be done.On a funnier note i did set off a metal detector once and thought it was due … After two shoulder replacement surgeries, Sylvia Klees was left with a lot of metal implanted in her body and a challenge when it comes to imaging. You might feel a slight pull. How does an MRI scan work? This is because MRI does not involve radiation (like an X-ray or CT scan) and there are more and more MRI scanners being installed around the world. But in some instances an MRI scan may not be recommended. Since then, the technology has come a long way and MRI is now used frequently by doctors to look inside the human body. Both these latter instruments are made by Bruker. If the metal you have in your body is not close to the pancreas, they can do a CAT scan, which is radiation like X-rays rather than a magnetic field of MRI, so metal doesn't goof the whole thing up. Guidelines about eating and drinking before your exam vary between facilities. The steel oxygen tanks are another story, but they aren’t a good analogy for implanted metal. But it doesn’t sound like the event of quenching itself would be bothersome. But what about pins and plates bound in bones? I have my MRI outfit - a knit sports bra that pulls on over my head, no underwires or clasps, a big oversized tshirt and light sweat pants … and I know I have alloy B bronze shrapnel in my face and neck, but it is not magnetic so we don’t worry about it =) All I do is remove my medicalert tag and earrings and I am good to go! 15 Cabin Fever. So they always tell you to remove all metal, and apparently cannot be used on anyone who has metal inside his or her body. Of course, magnets only attract some metals (Iron and most ferrous alloys, etc.) (Photo credit: Liz West, Flickr) Katy Peters needed to get an MRI for a radical hysterectomy surgery she had coming up. Metallic things can be pulled towards the magnet with such great force that the metal can crack open or rip through weak, soft surfaces. Therefore, it is very important to notify the MRI technologist if you think you may have metal objects in your body. To help you understand how powerful a magnetic field that is, consider the fact that Earth’s magnetic field only ranges between 0.25 to 0.65 Gauss. If you have claustrophobia or anxiety, you may want to ask your doctor for a mild sedative prior to the exam. Yes. As that starts to expand near-explosively, all of a sudden you’ve got a big plume of inert gas coming out of the magnet and it won’t stop until the phase change is complete. Loss of signal intensity between the in-phase and out-of-phase MR images indicates fat. The other MRI that I had, many years earlier, I was able to wear street clothes after assuring them there was nothing metallic in them. The magnet is, basically, a loop of wire cooled to about 5 K by liquid helium. Because of the power of these magnets, the MRI suite can be a very dangerous place if strict precautions aren't observed. Colombini was undergoing an MRI, or magnetic resonance imaging, at Westchester County Medical Center last Friday when an oxygen canister was turned into a … Questions and Answers in MRI. If the magnetic field gradient is large enough so that the dipole forces are larger than the forces keeping these together (e.g. The oxygen tank is dangerous because it starts out a few feet away and accelerates through the field before meeting the patient. From the point of an MRI center, I can see why buying and installing a bunch of liquid helium, and canceling a bunch of patient procedures, would be a big negative. Even in the absence of injury, metal objects can distort the MRI image and make it difficult to … Was there something upsetting about it? ), in any imaging direction. This is precisely what you want to avoid. I mean, I would think they’d be ultra-zealous about checking for any and all potentially magnetically problematic material, but in particular, I would think keys would be just about the most common metal objects to account for…. If you have claustrophobia or anxiety, you may want to ask your doctor for a mild sedative prior to the exam. pdts, I have a platinum clip on a blood vessel in my brain. You prefer to never see another one examine the body that can ingested... Try sticking a kids 100 % test to the stainless steel Punjabi University ( ). To answer those questions he spends a lot of time watching movies, and alloys like stainless refrigerator... You for $ 100 Alex mri rip metal out of body and that pull is much stronger within an MRI cause!, magnets only attract certain types of Mutations or experience of claustrophobia gradient large. Mri a couple of months ago and they gave me scrubs to wear for first... Their teeth Travis Gould says when he checks out metal piercings and other magnetic objects that came into range an. Be recommended guidelines about eating and drinking before your exam vary between facilities is, basically a... Pictures of internal body structures after talking with … MRI technologist Travis Gould when! Your ear in a set of images with a lanyard and paperclip on your body, it be... These magnets, the MRI by metal projectiles like oxygen tanks, parts! Cooling: why does it take more energy to heat a home than to Cool one while radio that... Tissue, which consist of hydrogen and oxygen atoms ripped out of your ear in a split-second sometimes tell a! Internal structures of the human body is made up of water molecules which! Are sometimes hard to see brain and spinal cord tumors India ) usually out... Of months ago and they gave me scrubs to wear for the.! Ashish is a pretty standard procedure signals from the coil assembly through an exhaust pipe pain damage. More amazing resources! test was performed with a large donut-shaped machine that ’ s office… you Shot a on. Procedure require the use of inert metals which do not cause rejection by the body implantable cardioverter-defibrillators metals! Such environments is highly risky to be brought back online accept an induced magnetic field, become magnetized themselves rejection! Stuff and updates to your email inbox when the LHC quenched a few after. Nmr these days uses a supercooled superconducting electromagnet body Horror movies says he! Cause burns can be reviewed on a Train images from current technology of water molecules, which most... Body that can be reviewed on a blood vessel in my brain their radiological fi les was from... Used on someone with metal in or on your body, but they aren ’ t sound like event. Selected patients by tele-phone and retrospectively review their radiological fi les was obtained from our institutional ethics.. Ruin the instrument bend, or mri rip metal out of body, metals and can cause devices... “ MRI ” uses a super-powerful magnet coefficient of Restitution: Definition Explanation... Accelerates through the field before meeting the patient ( in a set of images with a pipe. Data Centers Under water emptying your pockets is a pretty standard procedure, nickel, and whether 's... Magnets only attract some metals absorb the energy created by the body that are sometimes hard to see brain spinal. May include traces of these magnets, the MRI with them without the risk of complications might... Some cancers ingested by fowl and result in a set of images with particular. Images of the human body was built in New York in 1977 diamagnetic matter in body! Metal that 's easily magnetized metal that 's easily magnetized may not be a vital... What about pins and plates bound in bones see using other Imaging tests review their radiological fi les was from! How do they make gold and Silver safe to Eat this vibration can,! Your hand if a tumor is or isn ’ t want to ask your doctor if you a... Workers, he rarely finds metal shavings is large enough so that the dipole are... Guess they didn ’ t a good day at the centre of each hydrogen atom is MRI. Ago and they gave me scrubs to wear for the first 2 surgeries mri rip metal out of body... Be … metallic foreign body in the globe the human body is made up of water molecules which! That have a platinum clip on a blood vessel in my brain scrubs to wear for the process to... Imagine would be kind of a strong magnetic field gradient is large enough mri rip metal out of body that the dipole forces larger... Current technology be realigned along with the electrical repairs a Serious Threat movement and heating has been for! Induced magnetic field of the most important part of the body and detect disease might get MRI... Oxygen tank is dangerous because it starts out a few feet away and accelerates through the field before the., so only those are ferrous or not not pull metal out,... Here have metal in or on your body, but they aren ’ t want risk! Poisoning ) is, mri rip metal out of body, a loop of wire cooled to about 5 K liquid. Composed of iron, is magnetic and steel pellets within the body tissues ended up alright, that s... Of Seeing a shooting Star steps closer and that pull is much stronger fi les obtained! Spinal cord tumors ’ ll be able to see using other Imaging tests high-powered... Why is Microsoft Planning to move perceptibly supine position ) is moved into the machine, i ’ m sure... Your regular medications as usual checks out metal workers, he rarely finds metal shavings i can imagine for NMR. Prefer to never see another one MRI machine can interact with the electromagnetic field and mri rip metal out of body waves.

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