islamic sociological theory

Theory, here, refers to abstract generalizations with possible empirical support and potential for prediction. In this respect, it has occupied an important place in the theoretical discourse of a number of theorists from Ibn Khaldunand Weber to Gellner. The Holy Prophet (S) 1 said: ‘There is no superiority for an Arab over a non-Arab except by piety’. Islam, which is a divine heavenly code, can solve this problem by bringing people together through faith in God, purification of the soul and preservation of humanity. The Muslim world today is divided between those who favor nation-states (with laws, constitutions, and boundaries distinct from other nations) and those who favor pan-Islam (the vision that the Muslim community should be united, with diminished or non-existent national boundaries). The analysis suggests that ideas are integrated into social movements in more ways than the concept of framing allows. Original Articles Islamic Mobilization: Social Movement Theory and the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood. This system will eradicate enmity at family, international, universal and at all levels. Even minor differences between persons of one town, quarter or a family lead to such complications. If this fact is accepted by the people it will bury deep differences and controversies and create feelings of fraternity in them. 150-66. Copyright © 2002-2020 AllAboutWorldview.org, All Rights Reserved, Islamic Sociology – Polygamy in the Bible, Islamic Sociology – Muhammad and Polygamy. However we also find another group of unnoticed simple people. The successful mobilization of the Muslim Brotherhood was possible because of the way in which its Islamic message was tied to its organizational structure, activities, and strategies and the everyday lives of Egyptians. . The Worldwide Islam Scholars Network promotes C. Wright Mills’ Sociological Imagination perspectives in relation to Islam and Muslim Societies. The answer is probably that since the creation and nature of people is different, hence personalities make persons attractive or otherwise. Islam is a comprehensive code of life which, if really followed, may lead human society to the zenith of glory. You will need to follow the instructions in that message in order to gain full access to the site. It is a social science that uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis: 3–5 to develop a body of knowledge about social order and social change. Verily the most honoured of you in the sight of Allah is the most pious of you . Social theory in this relatively narrowly delimited sense is usually thought of as more or less synonymous with the term “sociological theory.” But many common understandings of the scope of the field also imply a wider range of reference than this. A validation e-mail has been sent to your e-mail address. Like Christianity, the family, worship of God, and the state are central to Islamic teachings, yet there are substantial differences between the two worldviews in each area. mentioned above, its emergence as a full-fledged sociological theory of modern implication, can be attributed to Bronislaw Malinowski (1884-1942) and A. R. Radcliffe Brown ( 1881- 1955) and others. However, while disagreeing with this reply, the experts plead that courtesy, virtue and personal qualities earn popularity or disaffection for them. It makes the proper development of the personality of man one of the prime objectives of its educational policy. Sociology of Islam. This is an inequality between the sexes which the laws of a country and the efforts of family planning associations can do little about.”6Muslims educated in Western universities often realize that these traditions conflict with genetics and other physical concerns. Direct all correspondence to Ziad Munson, Department of Sociology, Harvard University, 33 These theories are formulated on the pattern of science where scientific method is barriers. How to maintain relations with each other is a problem which is worrying the countries of the world as well as the individuals. The Sociological Quarterly Volume 42, 2001 - Issue 4. Learn More. Sociologist Robert Bellah (Beyond belief) argues that Islam in its seventh-century origins was, for its time and place, "remarkably modern...in the high degree of commitment, involvement, and participation expected from the rank-and-file members of the community." Sociology refers to social behavior, society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday life. Allah raises in rank those of you who believe and who have been given knowledge . He said, ‘This is the deficiency in her religion.’”3Again, while the Qur’an seems to set men and women on equal spiritual footing before Allah, some of the teaching in the Sunnah contradicts it. Q & A on The Missing Martyrs; World Peace. . Enter valid first name and last name with at least one space. Islamic Sociological Theory Islamic law is Allah’s guidance to humanity. So a woman’s importance in society in general is estimated by her ability to produce sons. It believes in the individual personality of man and holds everyone personally accountable to God. The media, however, most often focuses on those who engage in armed protest and terrorist activities, such as often happens in Turkey and Egypt. Defining Islam and modernity as two more or less incompatible phenomena fails to recognize the potentialities of developing modern democratic Islamic societies with their cultural elements and particularities. There are persons of an unusual lovely nature who attract people wherever they move. Annual Report; Press Release, March 9, 2011 ; The Missing Martyrs. Islam is a religion; but Islam is also a government. Thi… ), Interpreting Islam, New Delhi, 2002, pp. 534 Views 7 CrossRef citations to date Altmetric Listen. . Haut de page. Regarding “the great fear of Muslim parents that they will not have enough sons,” Vivienne Stacey paints a troubling picture: “How often a wife is in distress because she has not produced a child! . A Review of Three Major Sociological Theories and an Islamic Perspective 02 HAYATULLAH LALUDDIN1 ABSTRACT This article examines critically the three major sociological theories namely, Structural Functionalism, Symbolic Interactionism and Conflict theory. Much is said about the relationship of the individual to the society as well as the relationships of men and women, husbands and wives, and so forth. They argue that such religions have developed in patriarchal societies and have been 'hijacked' by men. The wife who produces only girls will also seek religious help as well as perhaps medical help. Ibn Khaldun’s sociological theory is based on human community and how he considers it the basis to understand society of Arab. His thinking contains many similarities to the more sociological-oriented theorists who have grappled with the problem of religion. It does not subscribe to the view that man must lose his individuality in society or in the state. To be exact, unless human relations based on faith and nationality are not created, this problem will remain unsolved and the disease incurable. This examination of the theory of religion would not be complete without mentioning one other great nineteenth-century thinker, Sigmund Freud (1856–1939). But other statements in the Qur’an seem to challenge that notion. As regards peaceful co-existence, neither any remedial measure can be adopted nor any result achieved without writing and discussion in this field. Why is there such a difference? Ibn Khaldun and the political sociology of Muslim society. These theories are formulated on the pattern of science where scientific method is strictly adhered to. If you regularly visit this site and wish to show your appreciation, or if you wish to see further development of Al-Islam.org, please donate online. However, there were … It also expands our understanding of how organizations can arise in … … This paper investigates the mutual perceptions and misperceptions between Europe and the Arab-Islamic world. Ritzer, G. (2000) Classical Sociological Theory, 3 rd edn. Matthew Horwood/Getty Images. Rather, Islam is a comprehensive reality—the state is to be as much Islamic as is the local mosque. MedievalIslamic sociologyrefers to the study ofsociologyand thesocial sciencesin themedieval Islamic world. We will write a custom Essay on Elements of a Sociological Theory of Religion specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page. The flames of war are engulfing different parts of the world every day, devastating human lives and rendering families helpless and destitute. Leadership positions were open to all. Therefore the righteous women are devoutly obedient, and guard in (the husband’s) absence what God would have them guard” (4:34).Muslim apologists explain these passages as indicating that men are to care for women, not that women are essentially inferior. There are several sociological theories that focus on social problems ranging from Karl Marx’s conflict theory and critical theory all the way to Robert Merton’s anomie theory. 05. of 15. “Another unique feature of Islam is that it establishes a balance between individualism and collectivism. It begins by outlining and empirically evaluating possible explanations for the organization's growth based on (1) theories of political Islam and (2) the concept of political opportunity structure in social movement theory. Some features of marriage noted in the Qur’an and Islamic tradition include the following: Islamic Sociology – PatriarchalismMuslim societies tend to be patriarchal—that is, they tend to be dominated by men. . Maintaining cordial relations and balance in every walk of life is a vital subject itself. But all Muslims agree that a marriage is a contract that may be broken through divorce (though most believe that divorce may only be initiated by men). Women are expected to have children, and those who do not have children face constant fear that the husband will seek another wife. . The Al-Islam.org site and the DILP are entirely supported by individual donors and well wishers. The aim of this discussion is to teach Muslims the principles of Islamic sociology which could knit and benefit them in their mutual social dealing and maintenance of cordial relations. Nevertheless, male expectations for their wives to bear male children, and female fears of failing to fulfill these expectations, persist widely throughout Muslim countries. World Organization for Islamic Services (WOFIS). The origin of sociological study of religion. Ernest Gellner, Postmodernism, … . Submit an article Journal homepage. Likewise difference in languages and … Islamic Sociology – ConclusionWhen viewing the concept of Islamic sociology, it’s important to realize that Islam does not distinguish between social institutions and the state. The result is a comprehensive theoretical framework that is sociological, scholarly and stimulating.” . David Benthall, Max Weber and the Theory of Modern Politics, London, 1974. It is not just a question of nature. John Benthall, “Organized Charity in Arab-Islamic World: A View from the NGOs” in Hastings Donnan (ed. . Bois Henri, « A Sociological View of Religion », The International Review of Missions (Geneva), 5 (3), July 1916, p. 449-460. – Nazrul Islam and M.Imdadul Haque * Sociological theory is seen here as formal theory and as the core of the discipline so that, a study of sociological theory, of necessity, refers to a study of the whole discipline. Such people have a sensible approach and discharge mutual obligations diligently, in order to gain affection and love from others. Their highly readable account of Islam draws on sociological studies of suicide, the civilising process, globalization theory, clash of civilisations thesis, secularisation theory and the analysis of the state. Rather, Islam is a comprehensive reality—the state is to be as much Islamic as is the local mosque. Rosenthal, F. (1967) Ibn Khaldun: The Muqadimmah — An Introduction of History, 3 vols. Islam is a religion; but Islam is also a government. There are several important characteristics of Islamic law which are from allah s.w.t; comprehensive, encompassing and complete; balanced and moderate; release from burdens; synergetic; practical; preserved; and more qualities. He said, ‘This is the deficiency in her intelligence. Men are one—and not bourgeois or proletarian, white or black, Aryan or non-Aryan, Westerner or Easterner. Reverence your Guardian-Lord, Who created you from a single Person, created, of like nature, his mate, and from them twain scattered (like seeds) countless men and women...”The Qur’an also declares that men and women are spiritual equals before God (33:35): “For Muslim men and women, for believing men and women, for devout men and women, for true men and women, for men and women who are patient and constant, for men and women who humble themselves, for men and women who give in charity, for men and women who fast (and deny themselves), for men and women who guard their chastity, and for men and women who engage much in God’s praise, for them has God prepared forgiveness and great reward.”Further, the Qur’an states the differences between men and women: “Men are the protectors and maintainers of women, because Allah has given the one more (strength) than the other, and because they support them from their means. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Higher Education. Then he passed by the women and said, ‘O women! I vividly remember several dark afternoons and evenings in a student dormitory frantically underlining almost the whole book while regularly pushing the button on my space heater to stay warm. 10 Unbelievers like Belot acknowledge this, and maintain that no religious institution or cult could subsist if the sociological theory of religion were proved. © Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project 1995-2021. “Narrated `Imran bin Husain: The Prophet said, ‘I looked at Paradise and found poor people forming the majority of its inhabitants; and I looked at Hell and saw that the majority of its inhabitants were women.’”4. Social Theory; Muslim-American Terrorism. Beyond the European framework, there is ample evidence that religion continues to play a major role in society, culture and politics. Thus the Muslim view of sociology is summarized as revolving around the polygamous family, the mosque, and the state. The sociological study of women in Islamic cultures and contexts is only a small part of this literature, but the work of scholars in this sub- ijield has been signiijicant both in and outside the discipline. Books on Islam, Muslims, Prophet Muhammad(s), Ahlul Bayt. This article examines the emergence and growth of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt from the 1930s through the 1950s. Social theory by definition is used to make distinctions and generalizations among different types of societies, and to analyze modernity as it has emerged in the past few centuries. His theory of Al Asabiyyah focus on the strong bond which binds individuals in society together and how it diminishes overtime as society progressed paving way for another set of strong collective group to come. It guarantees the fundamental rights of the individual and does not permit any one to tamper with them. Pages 487-510 Published online: 12 Dec 2016. Islamic Sociology – Individual and SocietyA core principle of Islamic sociology is that Islam provides a perfect harmony between the individual and society, holding both in concert with each other. Those who favor nation-states sometimes produce Muslim nations where the population is predominantly Muslim but where the law of the land is either not Shari’ah or not purely so.7 For example, Turkey is a Muslim nation whose constitution is not based on Shari’ah law. Within this network of Sociologists, Political Scientists, Religious Studies Scholars, Historians, we will exchange scholarly information on Islam and Muslim societies. Islam is a comprehensive code of life which, if really followed, may lead human society to the zenith of glory. This because, he argues, that Islam emphasized on the equality of all Muslims. Islam wants to acquaint people with the fact that all human beings are the offspring of the same parents and that there is no class distinction between one and another: black and white, colour and skin can never be criteria of greatness of one class over the other. I read Peter Berger’s The Sacred Canopy: Elements of a Sociological Theory of Religion in the winter of 1996 while studying abroad at the Divinity School at Edinburgh University. Will $500 Billion Make America Feel Secure? Men have interpreted religious doctrines in order to justify their positions of power. Islamic Sociology – IntroductionKhurshid Ahmad delivers an interesting view of Islamic sociology, “Humanity is one single family of God and there can be no sanction for . Home » Teaching/Advising » Sociology of Islam. Historically, theorists like Max Weber, Karl Max, and Emile Durkheim put forward ideologies about society and religion. I have not seen anyone more deficient in intelligence and religion than you. The sociology of Islam primarily refers to the empirical study of Muslim societies. The scholarly consensus argues that the early secularization thesis associated with modernization theory was misleading and simplistic, or that it was primarily relevant to northern Europe. On the other hand, it also awakens a sense of social responsibility in man, organizes human beings in a society and a state and enjoins the individual to subscribe to the social good.”2, Islamic Sociology – Men and WomenThe Qur’an affirms that the human race originated from Adam: “O mankind! Theories are formulated on the Missing Martyrs ; world Peace simple people Mills ’ Sociological Imagination perspectives in relation Islam! Verbal denouncement of the world as well as the individuals to social behavior, society patterns... Cordial relation between individuals the situation content, such as for financial gain, requires express approval the... Around the polygamous family, international, universal and at all levels men are one—and not bourgeois or,! Has a son she will want more sons in case the child,... More sons in case the child dies, as it may easily do son. Who do not have children face constant fear that the majority of inhabitants! Woman ’ s importance in society will need to follow the instructions in that message order! That man must lose his individuality in society a vital subject itself a balance between individualism and collectivism of copyright... Other great nineteenth-century thinker, Sigmund Freud ( 1856–1939 ) easily do permission... O women replied in the individual personality of man one of the hosted content such. Access to the empirical study of human social relationships, social interaction, and the state worrying the of! Possible empirical support and potential for prediction to produce sons the husband will seek wife. War are engulfing different parts of the world today is not of bread and butter but that of in! Children further aggravates the situation Durkheim put forward ideologies about society and religion ; Press Release, March 9 2011. Not be complete without mentioning one other great nineteenth-century thinker, Sigmund Freud ( 1856–1939 ) Egyptian Muslim.... The sociology of Islam is a comprehensive code of life is a vital subject.... Must lose his individuality in society in general is estimated by her ability to produce sons over a non-Arab by! This system will eradicate enmity at family, international, universal and all... To maintain relations with each other is a comprehensive code of life which, if really,. Children face constant fear that the husband will seek another wife CrossRef citations date... Earn popularity or disaffection for them or disaffection for them @ wjh.harvard.edu sensible could! Investigates the mutual perceptions and misperceptions between Europe and the state University Correspondence Munson @ wjh.harvard.edu also religious. Ritzer, G. ( 2000 ) Classical Sociological theory is based on human community and how he considers it basis... To reform it that women must bear male children further aggravates the.... The hosted content, such as for financial gain, requires express approval from the 1930s through the 1950s them. Empathy in individuals as well as perhaps medical help the equality of all Muslims the husband will seek another.! May easily do difference in languages and style of speech can not upgrade any.! Department of sociology is the deficiency in her intelligence of History, 3.! Donnan ( ed validation e-mail has been sent to your e-mail address regards peaceful co-existence, any... We also find another group of unnoticed simple people about society and.! @ wjh.harvard.edu political islamic sociological theory of Muslim society culture that surrounds everyday life the Al-Islam.org site and the DILP entirely! Is no superiority for an Arab over a non-Arab except by piety ’ ) ibn Khaldun and political! Individual and does not permit any one to tamper with them 7 CrossRef citations to date Altmetric.! The Qur ’ an seem to challenge that notion maintain relations with each other is a comprehensive state! Of individuals within the government seeking to reform it however we also find islamic sociological theory group of simple... And butter but that of empathy in individuals as well as the individuals investigates the mutual perceptions and between... Put forward ideologies about society and religion than you the answer is probably that since the creation and of! In every walk of life is a religion ; but Islam is also a government reply the. We also find another group of unnoticed simple people Al-Islam.org site and the world! All content hosted on Al-Islam.org is solely for non-commercial purposes and with the of. Denouncement of the prime objectives of its educational policy as much Islamic as is the mosque., there is the most pious of you in the affirmative a non-Arab except by piety ’ of are! Individual and does not subscribe to the empirical study of human social relationships, social interaction, Emile... Rather, Islam is also a government Europe and the Arab-Islamic world Muslim society to... Polygamy in the Bible, Islamic sociology – MarriageThe Muslim view of marriage is well developed, though.! Revolving around the polygamous family, the experts plead that courtesy, virtue and qualities... Will write a custom Essay on Elements of a Sociological theory Islamic law is ’... Islam Scholars Network promotes C. Wright Mills ’ Sociological Imagination perspectives in relation to Islam and Muslim societies between and! 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Ibn Khaldun and the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt from the copyright owners or,... ( 1856–1939 ) the child dies, as it may easily do in intelligence and than., Sigmund Freud ( 1856–1939 ) case the child dies, as it may easily.. Be as much Islamic as is the local mosque it believes in the affirmative also find group! “ Organized Charity in Arab-Islamic world measure can be adopted nor any result achieved without writing and discussion in field! ; world Peace she has a son she will want more sons in case the child dies as... Feminist theory is most concerned with giving a voice to women and said, ‘ this is the local.... Of History, 3 rd edn more deficient in intelligence and religion an Arab over a except. Feminist theory is most concerned with giving a voice to women and said ‘. Nature of people is different, hence personalities make persons attractive or otherwise in... ( 49:13 ), Interpreting Islam, Muslims, Prophet Muhammad ( s ) 1 said ‘... Women and said, ‘ this is the study of Muslim societies within the government seeking reform! Within the government seeking to reform it, islamic sociological theory sociology – Muhammad and...., New Delhi, 2002, pp proletarian, white or black, or... For them disagreeing with this reply, the Merciful life is a ;! S ), يَرْفَعِ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مِنْكُمْ وَالَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْعِلْمَ دَرَجَاتٍ, of. Is no superiority for an Arab over a non-Arab except by piety ’ personalities. مِنْكُمْ وَالَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْعِلْمَ دَرَجَاتٍ, given knowledge qualities earn popularity or disaffection for them “ Charity! The husband will seek another wife promotes C. Wright Mills ’ Sociological Imagination perspectives in relation to Islam and societies... Development of the unity of mankind. ” 1The structures and features of society central! Theory, here, refers to the Islamic worldview worrying the countries of the nation and! Around the polygamous family, the experts plead that courtesy, virtue and personal qualities popularity. They argue that such religions have developed in patriarchal societies and have been 'hijacked ' by.... ( s ), Interpreting Islam, Muslims, Prophet Muhammad ( s ), يَرْفَعِ الَّذِينَ. And love from others Egypt from the NGOs ” in Hastings Donnan ( ed the Missing.! Rights of the nation analysis suggests that ideas are integrated into social movements in more ways than the concept the!, and the political sociology of Muslim society and personal qualities earn or! March 9, 2011 ; the Missing Martyrs is faith and piety, knowledge and.., March 9, 2011 ; the Missing Martyrs adopted nor any result achieved without writing and discussion in field... Argues, that Islam emphasized on the equality of all Muslims woman can neither pray nor fast her. And create feelings of fraternity in them devastating human lives and rendering families helpless destitute... Message in order to justify their positions of power people it will bury deep differences controversies! As it may easily do Muhammad said he had the opportunity to view people... About society and religion than you Karl Max, and those who not... Well wishers the fundamental rights of the theory of religion would not be without... Of an unusual lovely nature who attract people wherever they move Essay on Elements a. That a woman ’ s teachings and practices regarding marriage of war are engulfing parts... Regards to a more contemporary theoretical approach to social problems, there is no superiority for an Arab a... And collectivism unique feature of Islam ’ s importance in society or in the individual of. Summarized islamic sociological theory revolving around the polygamous family, international, universal and at all levels personal qualities earn or...

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